Saturday, April 1, 2017

Achalasia - Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, diagnosis, Treatment and prevention

Achalasia is a condition in which the esophagus (esophageal) lost the ability to push food from the mouth to the stomach. The disease is relatively rare, it can be inherited, and can strike people of all ages. However, most patients with achalasia are middle-aged or an autoimmune disorder.
Normally, the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) will be loosened so that the food can enter the stomach. However, in patients with achalasia, the LES does not sag properly. So the food is piled on the lower part of the esophagus or more frequent meals ride back. LES itself is a circular muscle at the bottom of the esophagus that opens automatically when the food or drink down to the stomach. And closed by itself to prevent acid and food in the stomach does not rise back into the esophagus.
Achalasia - Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, diagnosis, Treatment and prevention
Achalasia -
Damage and loss of nerves in the walls of the esophagus become the main cause of achalasia. However, the cause of broken or loss of neurons is still unknown. Autoimmune disorders, such as the syndrome of Sjogren's, lupus, or uveitis, can also be connected with the advent of achalasia.
There are several complications that can be experienced by patients with achalasia, namely:
  • Regurgitation. Acid reflux or food back into the esophagus.
  • Pneumonia, due to the entry of food into the lungs.
  • Oesophageal perforation. Tearing of the esophagus wall.
  • Cancer of the esophagus. Blockage of the esophagus by food in large quantities that can not get into the stomach, then esophagus cancer risk also increases.

Symptom Achalasia 

A symptom is something that is felt and it is reported by the patient. The main symptoms are generally felt by people with achalasia are:
  • Dysphagia, is a condition in which patients with achalasia difficulty, even pain when swallowing food or drink.
  • Chest pain, which usually worsens after eating.
  • Pain in the gut.
  • Vomit dripping from its mouth.
  • Decreased body weight for no obvious reason.

Diagnosis Achalasia 

Diagnosis is a step the doctor to identify the disease or condition that explains the symptoms and signs experienced by the patient. Some things are usually done physicians to diagnose achalasia is:
  • Imaging X-rays and barium. Patients will be asked to swallow a liquid containing barium chemicals so that the esophagus can be seen when the picture is taken with X-rays. Normally, the diameter of the esophagus looks quite wide and barium looks smoothly into the stomach. But not so in patients with achalasia.
  • Endoscopy. The flexible instrument with a camera on the end to be inserted into the bottom of the esophagus so that the doctor can examine the esophagus and the stomach wall.
  • Manometry . Small plastic tube will be inserted into the esophagus through the mouth or nose, and will record the activity and strength of muscle contraction and check the function of the esophagus. In achalasia would seem the loss of contraction and a higher pressure at the end of the esophagus.
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    prevention Achalasia 

    The goal of treatment for patients with achalasia is to open the LES muscle, so that food and drinks can get into the stomach. Several types of treatment for patients with achalasia are:
    • Dilation of the esophagus, especially in the part that is narrowed with the help of a balloon. This action was preceded by general anesthesia and must be repeated several times again after more than a year.
    • Drugs. LES muscle can slack while by taking drugs. Doctors usually prescribe drugs such as nitrates or nifedipine.
    • Surgery. The esophagus will be accessible through the abdomen or chest, then the LES muscle fibers that stiffen to be separated. Generally, the effectiveness of therapy in this way is permanent.
    • Injection of Botox (Botulinum toxin). The doctor will inject Botox into the LES muscle, because of Botox can cause muscle fibers to relax. Usually only effective for a few months.
    To reduce discomfort after undergoing esophageal dilation or surgical measures, there are some things you can do:
    • Drink plenty of fluids during meals.
    • Always eat with the upright seating position.
    • Do not hurry and chew your food well before swallowing.
    • Use several pillows to refute the head, to prevent stomach acid up into the esophagus and cause pain in the gut.
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