Saturday, April 15, 2017

Anthrax - Symptoms, causes and treatment

Understanding Anthrax

Anthrax is a serious and rare disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis . These bacteria usually infects farm animals and animals used in the game, such as rodeo, bull-races, or pitting. Bacteria B.anthracis produces spores that can spread the infection.
Anthrax - Symptoms, causes and treatment

Transmission to humans can occur by inhaling anthrax spores or anthrax diseased meat-eating animals. Up to now there is no medical evidence that shows that the bacteria that cause anthrax can be transmitted between humans. However, a healthy person has the possibility of getting infected if he had a wound in the skin which is in contact directly with existing wound in the skin of patients with anthrax.
Several factors can increase a person's risk of anthrax infection are:
  • Contact with the skin or fur of animals in the region at risk of anthrax.
  • Conducting studies related to the anthrax in the laboratory.
  • Take care of game animals (rodeo, bull-races, pitting).
  • Injecting drug use, such as heroin.
  • Having a job as a veterinarian, especially those dealing with livestock.
  • Activity in the area of ​​high risk exposure to anthrax.
If not promptly treated, anthrax can cause serious complications such as inflammation of the membranes and cerebrospinal fluid and spinal cord (meningitis), which then lead to severe bleeding and lead to death.

symptoms of Anthrax

In most cases of anthrax, symptoms will appear approximately 7 days after a person is exposed to bacteria. However, if the transmission over the air, then the symptoms will usually only visible a few weeks after inhalation of bacterial spores.
The symptoms of anthrax are distinguished by how it is transmitted, namely:
  • Cutaneous anthrax. In this kind of anthrax, the bacteria infect the body through cuts or other wounds in the skin. Skin anthrax is the most common kind, and the lightest. With proper treatment, rarely causes death. Symptoms include itchy bumps like insect bites on the infected area. These lumps then become painless ulcer with a black central section. In addition, there can be swelling of the lymph nodes near the site of the wound.
  • Gastrointestinal anthrax. Anthrax bacteria into the patient's body through the consumption of anthrax-infected animals, which are not cooked until done. Gastrointestinal anthrax symptoms are nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, decreased appetite, fever, severe diarrhea with feces mixed with blood, sore throat and difficulty swallowing, and swelling of the neck.
  • Anthrax inhalation. Anthrax This type develops when the patient inhaling anthrax spores. Inhalation anthrax is the most lethal kind. The initial symptoms of anthrax resemble the symptoms of this type of flu, such as fever, sore throat, muscle aches, and fatigue. Then there is discomfort in the chest, become short of breath, nausea, coughing up blood, pain on swallowing, high fever, difficulty breathing, shock, and meningitis occur.
  • Anthrax injection. Usually the bacteria enter the body through the injection of illegal drugs. This species is the most recent way of transmission was found. Symptoms include redness at the injection site, severe swelling, shock, multi-organ failure, and meningitis.

Causes Anthrax

Anthrax spores produced by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis contained in the soil. These spores can live without a host inactive for several years.
Farm animals such as goats, sheep, cows, or horses generally are hosts for anthrax spores. And most humans infected by anthrax of the skin or meat of animals infected with anthrax.
Anthrax is not transmitted from one person to another. Therefore, a person who made contact with anthrax patients do not need to be immunized or treated. However, one needs to be vigilant if they are in the same region with the spread of anthrax patients, or exposure to the source of the infection (livestock, game animals) are the same.

Anthrax diagnosis

In diagnosing anthrax, the initial examination is to exclude other diseases that have similar symptoms, such as flu or pneumonia with similar symptoms of inhalation anthrax. After that, it can do further examinations, such as:
  • Pathological examination Suspected fluid from the wound or skin tissue samples on the infected area is removed for examination.
  • Examination of blood. Checking if there are any anthrax bacteria in the blood of patients.
  • Examination of dirt. Dirt patients were examined to confirm the diagnosis of gastrointestinal anthrax.
  • Scanning X-rays or CT- scan of the chest, performed on patients suspected of inhalation anthrax.
  • UNCTION lumbar (s Pinal tap The sampling of cerebrospinal fluid from the patient's spine area to be examined further, in order to confirm the diagnosis of meningitis caused by anthrax.

Anthrax treatment

Antibiotics are commonly given as a treatment for anthrax is ciprofloxacin, doxycycline , and levofloxacin.
Anthrax treatment can be effective if done as soon as possible, and often by using a combination of a number of antibiotics. Several factors can affect the success rate of treatment, are:
  • Age of the patient.
  • The general health condition of the patient.
  • Size infected body part.
Inhalation anthrax patients often do not respond to treatment with either, because the bacteria already produce a lot of toxins that can not be eliminated entirely by drugs. While the anthrax injection, some cases can be cured by lifting the infected body tissue surgically.

Anthrax prevention

To prevent contracting anthrax, are advised to eat meat cooked and avoid contact with infected animals.
Anthrax can also be prevented by administering the anthrax vaccine. However, this vaccine is not intended for the public, and is not recommended for children and the elderly. Until now, the vaccine is only recommended for members of the military, scientists who studied anthrax, and people with high-risk professions affected by this disease.

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