Monday, April 17, 2017

Astigmatism : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

Understanding Astigmatism

Astigmatism is a vision disorder caused by defects in the curvature of the lens or cornea resulting in distorted or blurred sight. Astigmatism often occurs at birth, but can also be caused by an injury suffered by the eye at a later date, or complications from eye surgery.
Astigmatism : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

A disease that causes reduced visual acuity in various distance range can be experienced by a person suffering from nearsightedness (myopia) and farsightedness (hipermetropi). If left unchecked, astigmatism can cause headaches and eye fatigue, especially when after using the eye for a long time.

Causes of Astigmatism

Astigmatism due to lens or cornea is not smooth results in light entering the eye, becomes the focus when passed on to the retina. Therefore, the resulting outlook becomes opaque.
Based on the location of the damage, astigmatism can be divided into two types. Astigmatism caused by defects in the cornea called corneal astigmatism, while caused by defects in the lens of the eye is called lenticular astigmatism.
Meanwhile, by type of damage, there are two types of astigmatism, namely regular and irregular . Astigmatism regular is when one side of the cornea is more curved than the other side. This condition is a condition most common and can be treated with the help of eye glasses or lenses. Astigmatism irregular is when the cornea is uneven not only on one side, but on the entire surface of the cornea. This condition is caused by an injury that left scars on the cornea. This condition can be treated with the help of a contact lens, but not with a glass eye.
The case of astigmatism usually appear at birth, although the exact cause of why this condition appears still unknown. There is the assumption that the astigmatism is hereditary in families. This condition is also more common in babies with low birth weight or premature birth.
Some of the causes that can cause astigmatism:
  • Complications from eye surgery.
  • Injuries to the cornea due to infection.
  • The condition of the eyelids that interfere with the structure of the cornea. For example, there is a lump in the eyelid pressing the cornea.
  • And keratoglobus keratoconus, a condition in which the cornea can change shape, either mengggembung or thinning.
  • Other eye conditions that affect the cornea or lens.
Myopic disease (hipermetropi / hyperopia) or nearsightedness (myopia) can accompany astigmatism.

symptoms Astigmatism

Astigmatism can cause visual disturbances that can affect the daily activities of patients. Some of the symptoms of these conditions, namely:
  • The views were vague or unfocused
  • Dizzy
  • Eyestrain
  • Sensitive to the beam of light (photophobia)
  • Difficulty distinguishing colors adjacent
  • Trouble seeing the full picture, for example, straight lines that appear to be misaligned
In case of severe astigmatism, the patient may experience double vision.

diagnosis Astigmatism

Astigmatism can usually be detected after a routine eye examination. Given astigmatism can appear at birth, eyes checked on a regular basis is also important, especially in newborns and children. Plus, children may not realize that there is a disturbance in the power of their vision.
Some checks may be performed to make sure the symptoms and confirm the diagnosis of astigmatism, among other tests keratometer and visual acuity tests. Visual acuity tests performed to test the eyesight of an object from a certain distance by reading a board row of letters known as the Snellen chart . Keratometer tests conducted to determine the defective condition of the cornea to see how focused the light transmitted by the cornea to the retina.
Other tests may also be performed to measure the focus of light on the eye. The doctor will put some kind of lenses alternately in front of the eyes with the help of a tool called Phoropter. Mungin tool called the retinoscope also be used to highlight the light into the patient's eye. By doing so, the examiner can assess the degree of visual acuity of patients, including the ability of the eye focuses light.
Healthy adults aged over 40 years and someone who has a risk of eye disease, such as diabetics, are also worth a routine eye examination. Consult with your doctor regarding time eye examination should be done by infants, children, and adults.

treatment of Astigmatism

In most cases, astigmatism suffered as very light so it does not require treatment at all. Astigmatism treatment aims to improve the quality of vision of patients with the use of glasses, lens of the eye, or through a surgical procedure that uses a laser beam eyes. Treatment of astigmatism given by type, ie regular or irregular .
The use of corrective lenses to help focus the light that hits corneal astigmatism patients who have a curvature or uneven surfaces. Thus, the light entering the eye may fall squarely on the retina. Patients can use corrective lenses in the form of eye glasses or lenses in accordance with the comfort of the eye and the recommendations given by ophthalmologists.
Astigmatism treatment that uses a laser beam assistance aims to improve tissue in the cornea is not curved as it should. Network outermost cells that exist in the surface of the cornea to be removed first before the laser beam is used to change the shape of the cornea and restore the eye's ability to focus light. This procedure generally requires a period of half an hour. Furthermore, the cornea is maintained for restored condition. Several types of procedures that use laser-assisted surgery for the treatment of astigmatism, which is LASIK ( laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis ), LASEK ( laser epithelial keratomileusis sub ), and fotorefraktif keraktektomi (PRK).
Consult existing astigmatism type of treatment with your doctor before deciding on treatment in accordance with the type of astigmatism possessed. Also learn the pros and cons of each treatment procedures available.

complications Astigmatism

Astigmatism experienced by one eye since birth can cause a "lazy eye" ( lazy eye) or the so-called amblyopia. This happens because the brain is accustomed to ignore the signals sent by the eye. Amblyopia can be treated if diagnosed and treated early on before the visual pathways in the brain to develop fully. Thus the child will be protected from conditions lazy eye .

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