Friday, April 21, 2017

BRONCHIOLITIS : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

Definition Bronchiolitis

Bronchiolitis is an infection of the airways that causes inflammation and blockage in the bronchioles or tiny airways in the lungs. This condition is common for infants to children aged two and under.
BRONCHIOLITIS : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

At first, a child affected by bronchiolitis would look like he was hurt the common cold with symptoms of mild cough and runny nose. A few days later, the symptoms will develop. Children will often experience a dry cough accompanied by wheezing and fever. In addition, he will be hard to eat.
Most cases are relatively mild bronchiolitis. These symptoms will usually subside less than three weeks with no treatment is required. Nevertheless, there were also a few cases of bronchiolitis whose symptoms are serious enough. Therefore, parents should still be aware.
Bring your child to the doctor if the fever remains high, shortness of breath, irritability, looks very tired, and the meal portions reduced drastically. In addition, also bring your child to the doctor if it shows signs of dehydration (can be seen from the urine which is rare). If shortness of breath is getting worse and cause the skin to become pale, lips and tongue appear blue, and the body sweating, or there is a lag stops breathing long enough, immediately take your child to the hospital or call an ambulance.

Causes of Bronchiolitis

Some viruses can cause bronchiolitis disease, including flu and colds. But the type of virus that most commonly cause this condition (mainly in children who were aged less than two years) is respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Children usually contract the virus when it is near the patient and exposed to the splash of saliva from coughing or sneezing patient. In addition, transmission can also occur through an intermediary, such as a toy. When the goods are already contaminated with the virus and children held their hands touching their mouth or nose, then the transmission will most likely occur.
Here are some conditions that can increase the risk of a child affected by bronchiolitis, among them:
  • Having a weak immune.
  • Born prematurely.
  • Less than three months old.
  • Never breastfed. Children who are fed breast milk have better body immunity compared to those who did not.
  • Staying in dense environments.
  • Often make contact with other children.
  • Frequent exposure to cigarette smoke.
  • Having a lung disease or heart.

diagnosis Bronchiolitis

Bronchiolitis generally can be detected by a doctor through a confirmation of the symptoms experienced by children, such as coughs, colds, and fevers. Moreover, it will do a physical examination by looking at the child's breathing condition that can be heard by a doctor using a stethoscope.
If the doctor is not sure of the cause of the symptoms that occur (asthma and cystic fibrosis can also cause symptoms similar to bronchiolitis), then further tests can be done. Examples of such further examination is the examination of the virus through the mucus sample, examination of the blood oxygen levels using the oximeter, blood tests and urine tests.

treatment of Bronchiolitis

If your child is sick bronchiolitis and are not considered severe, a doctor may recommend that you do the treatment at home. Examples of home treatment for this condition are:
  • resting child
  • and give him plenty of fluids (including breast milk and formula). Hali is done to prevent dehydration.
  • Make your child's room cozy room by installing humidifiers.
  • Sterilize your child's room from the room air pollution (especially cigarette smoke).
  • Provide heat relief medication that can be purchased freely in pharmacies (eg, ibuprofen and paracetamol) if your child has a fever according to the dosage recommended by the doctor or the user instructions on the packaging. Paracetamol can be given to children over the age of two months, and iburofen can be administered to children above the age of three months with a minimum weight of five kilograms. Do not give aspirin because the drug is intended for people aged 16 years and over.
  • Giving drops of saline (salt solution) which can be bought in pharmacies to relieve your child's nose is clogged.
In the case of severe bronchiolitis with shortness of breath alarming, the handling should be done in a hospital. During her stay at the hospital, in addition to getting oxygen therapy, children with bronchiolitis will get fluids through an IV.

complications Bronchiolitis

Complications often occur in cases of severe bronchiolitis. Some examples of these complications are:
  • Dehydration
  • Respiratory failure or lack of oxygen levels in the body
  • Cyanosis characterized by skin and lips blue from lack of oxygen
  • Apnea or breathing stops momentarily.

prevention Bronchiolitis

To minimize the risk of your child affected by bronchiolitis, keep children from people who show symptoms of the disease or other respiratory disease. Wash your hands and your child regularly to avoid transmission of the virus when you touch Little or through intermediary bodies. If there are friends or family who want to hold your child, ask them to wash their hands first. In addition, keep your children from exposure to secondhand smoke.
If your child is sick bronchiolitis, Insist in advance all the activities they do outside to avoid transmission of the disease to other people. Treat your child at home until they recover.
In children at high risk of bronchiolitis (eg having weak immune, lung diseases or heart since birth and premature birth), a doctor may recommend for the injection of antibodies per month.

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