Friday, April 21, 2017

BRONCHITIS : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

Understanding Bronchitis

Bronchitis is an infection of the respiratory tract from the primary lung or bronchus cause inflammation or inflammation of the channel. This condition is included as one of the respiratory diseases.
The following are some of the symptoms caused by bronchitis:
  • Cough with mucus yellow or grayish green.
  • Pain in the throat.
  • Hard to breathe.
  • Runny or stuffy nose.
  • Pain or discomfort in the chest.
  • Fatigue.
  • Mild fever.
BRONCHITIS : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication
Bronchitis is divided into two types. First, acute bronchitis lasts for two to three weeks. Acute bronchitis is one of respiratory tract infections are the most common and most often strikes children under 5 years old. Second, chronic bronchitis is an infection of the bronchi that lasts at least three months in the year and repeated the following year. Chronic bronchitis is more common in adults over the age of 40 years.

Why of Bronchitis

Bronchi are the airways of the respiratory system that carry air to the lungs and vice versa. Bronchial wall produce mucous or phlegm to keep dust and other particles that can cause irritation from getting into the lungs.
Acute bronchitis comes from a lung infection that is most commonly caused by a virus. Irritation and inflammation causes the bronchi produce more mucous or phlegm. And the body trying to expel mucus or mucosal excessive by expectoration.
The cause of the most common chronic bronchitis is smoking. Each cigarette puff potentially damaging the small hairs in the lungs called cilia hairs. Hair cilia function flush and sweep out the dust, irritation, and mucosal or excess mucus. After some time, the content of cigarettes can cause permanent damage to the cilia and the lining of the bronchial wall. When this happens, the dirt can not be removed and disposed of normally. Mucus and feces that accumulate in the lungs makes breathing system becomes more susceptible to infection.
In most cases, bronchitis can be treated easily at home. You only need to see your doctor if  symptoms of bronchitis  that appears to be getting worse and not as usual, for example:
  • Cough experienced more severe and last longer than three weeks.
  • Experiencing a fever  for more than three days.
  • Followed by a productive cough blood.
  • You suffer from heart disease  or lung so the underlying cause. Eg,asthma,emphysema,or heart failure .
To  diagnose bronchitis , the doctor will ask the symptoms experienced, checking and also listen to the chest wearing a stethoscope.

Types of Treatment For Bronchitis

Acute bronchitis usually disappears on its own within a few weeks, so sometimes it is not needed  medication for bronchitis . While waiting for this disease passed, you are advised to drink plenty of fluids and plenty of rest. In some cases, symptoms of bronchitis can last longer.
Chronic bronchitis symptoms will usually last for at least three months. There is no cure for chronic bronchitis, but there are drugs that can be used to relieve symptoms. You should avoid smoking or environment with a lot of smokers in the vicinity. This condition can worsen symptoms if you suffer from chronic bronchitis.

Complications Possible Outcomes

Complications bronchitis  are the most common is  pneumonia . This complication occurs when infection spreads deeper into the lungs. Infection causes air pockets in the lungs to fill with fluid. About 5 percent of cases lead to pneumonia bronchitis.
People who are more susceptible to pneumonia, such as the elderly, smokers, and people are in a state hospital, may need to be hospitalized. This was done as a precautionary measure the occurrence of pneumonia.

Symptoms Of Bronchitis

The main symptoms of bronchitis are dry cough. But there is also the possibility of coughing out a thick yellowish-gray mucus, though this is not always the case. Coughing may persist for several weeks after other symptoms disappear. A sustained cough can make the chest and abdominal muscles hurt.

Other Symptoms That Appear

Other bronchitis symptoms are:
  • Hard to breathe
  • Sore throat
  • Fatigue
  • A little fever and shivering
  • Headache
  • Blocked noses and sinuses
  • Body aches
These symptoms may not be severe and you may not need to see a doctor, but the symptoms of bronchitis are similar to  pneumonia . It is important to pay attention to changes in symptoms experienced.

Long-term or Chronic Bronchitis

The symptoms of chronic bronchitis usually worsen when the weather becomes colder or drier. Generally, patients with chronic bronchitis have two severe bronchitis attacks in a year. If you suffer from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), you will be more out of breath during exercise or on the move. The following are symptoms that usually appear in chronic or acute bronchitis:
  • Wheezing
  • Cough .
  • Production of mucosa or mucus is yellow, green, grayish, and can be mixed with blood lasting at least 3 months and repeated 2 times or more in a year.
  • Chest infections many times.
  • Fatigue.
  • Hard to breathe.
  • Chest feels uncomfortable.
Chronic bronchitis is characterized by a productive cough that lasts at least three months and will resurface for at least two consecutive years.

The Right Time to Check Yourself to a Doctor

Immediately see a doctor, if you suffer:
  • A very severe cough or that lasts longer than three weeks to interrupt sleep and daily activities.
  • Fever for more than three days.
  • Your coughing mucus is accompanied by blood.
  • Breathe rapidly about 30 times per minute or experience chest tightness.
  • Easily drowsy or confused.
  • Have been exposed to bronchitis many times before.
  • Suffer from heart or lung disease, such as asthma , emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or congestive heart failure.
  • Suffer from HIV-AIDS.

Causes Of Bronchitis

In general, acute bronchitis is caused by a virus and most of it is caused by a virus also causes  colds  and  flu . The virus can be inhaled while stuck in the air. This virus is contained in millions of tiny drops coming out of the nose or mouth when we cough or sneeze. This virus can also survive on the surface of any object for one day. A person can get infected by touching a contaminated object, then put his hand near his mouth or nose. In addition to viruses, bronchitis infections can also be caused by bacteria.
The most important trigger of chronic bronchitis is smoking. People who smoke or live with active smokers are at increased risk of bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis can also be triggered by an unhealthy work environment. This condition is more commonly referred to as occupational bronchitis. The term occupational bronchitis is used when the patient experiences bronchitis due to irritating elements in the workplace such as fabric fibers, ammonia, dust flakes, and chlorine.

Diagnosis Of Bronchitis

If you have bronchitis, you may not need to see a doctor. Unless you experience severe symptoms. If you see a doctor, they can usually make a diagnosis by asking for symptoms, checking and listening to your chest cavity using a stethoscope.

Understanding Other Health Conditions

The doctor may need to check if there is any other lung infection. For example, pneumonia  has symptoms similar to bronchitis. If your doctor suspects you have pneumonia, your doctor will take a sample of phlegm or mucus for examination. In addition, doctors will also perform X-ray imaging for the chest area.
If doctors suspect unknown basic disease and cause bronchitis, such as asthma  and emphysema,  lung function tests may be necessary. You are asked to take a deep breath and blow it on a device called a spirometer. This tool checks the lung performance by measuring the amount of air your lungs release. A decrease in the capacity of the amount of air in the lungs could mean a basic problem.

Treatment Of Bronchitis

Especially in cases of acute bronchitis, usually will heal by itself without medical treatment. Here are some simple ways to treat yourself:
  • Many rest.
  • Drink lots of water. Water can help thin the mucus for easy lifting from the lungs. Adequate fluid intake is also important to  prevent dehydration .
  • Stop smoking and avoid smoke (factories, exhausts, chemicals). Smoking and smoke can aggravate the bronchitis experienced.
  • Especially for children, give a mixture of honey with lemon that can help relieve  sore throat .
  • Avoid taking cough medicine. Coughing  actually helps to remove mucus or phlegm. You do not need to take  cough medicine , except at night when cough interferes with your sleep.
Antibiotics will not be given in cases of bronchitis caused by viruses because it will not give any effect. Provision of antibiotics is necessary if there is a possibility of bacterial infection. If there is an increase in the amount of mucus and its viscosity, you are already infected with bacteria. The prescribed antibiotic prescription is usually for five days.

Treatment of Chronic Bronchitis

If you suffer from chronic bronchitis, your lungs automatically become more susceptible to infection. You may need   annual flu vaccination and  pneumonia vaccination . But if your doctor forbids you for some reason, do not vaccinate it. It is advisable to consult with a doctor before vaccinating anything.
Chronic bronchitis is treated in the same way as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To dilute the mucosa or mucus that exists, a drug called mucolytic  can be consumed. The other way is lung rehabilitation. This is done to relieve symptoms that appear.
For chronic bronchitis, it is advisable to avoid drugs purchased free from pharmacies, unless the doctor advises them. The doctor will prescribe medication if the mucosa or mucus is difficult to remove. For people with chronic bronchitis, it is advisable to stop smoking so that conditions do not get worse.

Complications Bronchitis

Occurrence of Pneumonia

About 5 percent of people with bronchitis have secondary infections in one or both lungs. This infection mainly attacks air pockets known as alveoli. This infection is also referred to as  pneumonia . The risk of people suffering from pneumonia will increase if:
  • Kian is old.
  • Have a habit of smoking.
  • Suffer from other diseases such as the heart, or kidneys.
  • Have a weak immune system.
Symptoms of pneumonia include:
  • Rapid heartbeat.
  • Difficulty breathing. Breathing short and fast despite being rested.
  • Have a  fever .
  • Feeling unwell.
  • Pain in the chest.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Chills
Mild pneumonia can be treated with antibiotics and plenty of rest. You are also advised to increase fluid consumption. But for more severe cases should be treated in hospital. Respiratory or  ventilator , can help breathing. While antibiotic drugs can be given directly into the blood vessels through the infusion.

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