Friday, April 21, 2017

BRUCELLOSIS : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

Understanding Brucellosis

Brucellosis is an infection caused by bacteria that come from animals to humans.According to WHO data in 2014, brucellosis infects more than half a million people in 100 countries each year.
Brucellosis very rarely can be transmitted from human to human, but this disease can move between humans through breast milk and sexual relations. Although rare, but brucellosis can also be transmitted through blood transfusions or transfusions from contaminated bone marrow. In very rare cases, the bacteria that cause brucellosis can even spread through the air.
BRUCELLOSIS : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication
Bacteria are the cause of the emergence of brucellosis named Brucella . Always cover and keep the wounds clean when interacting with animals, is one way to prevent transmission of brucellosis.

Symptoms of Brucellosis

Symptoms are something that is felt and told by the patient. Symptoms of brucellosis may appear several days or months after the patient is infected. One of the main symptoms of this condition is a symptom similar to that of long lasting flu. Some of the symptoms of brucellosis are:
  • Fever.
  • Weight loss.
  • Sweating at night.
  • Feeling tired and weak.
  • Pain in joints, muscles and back.
  • Headache.
  • Loss of appetite.
These symptoms can recur after they have subsided for some time. Immediately consult your doctor if you have a persistent fever, muscle aches, or an unclear body weakness.

Causes and Risk Factors Brucellosis

Generally Brucella bacteria that cause the emergence of this disease can infect humans through animals. There are three ways of transmitting the Brucella bacteria from animal to human:
  • Raw milk products. Humans will be infected with Brucellosis when eating foods and beverages made from raw milk or eating animal meat infected with Brucella .
  • Air. Brucella can spread and enter the body easily through the air that someone inhales.
  • Direct contact. Bacteria in blood, sperm fluid, placenta of infected animals can enter the body of a person through the wound he has.
Four types of Brucella bacteria that cause most cases of brucellosis in humans are:
  • Brucellosis canis, commonly spread through dogs.
  • Brucellosis melitensis, mostly found in goats and sheep.
  • Brucellosis abortus, can be transmitted through cattle livestock.
  • Brucellosis suis, can be found in wild pigs.
Some things that increase a person's risk of brucellosis are:
  • Traveling to the area where the bacteria Brucella is still widely found.
  • Work at slaughterhouses or farms.
  • Eat and drink unpasteurized dairy products.

Diagnosis of Brucellosis

Diagnosis is a doctor's step to identify a disease or condition that explains the symptoms and signs experienced by the patient. The usual examination of a doctor to diagnose brucellosis is testing blood or bone marrow samples.
The purpose of blood or bone marrow test is to examine the infection and to identify the type of Brucella bacteria that affects the patient's body. While the examination measures that are generally performed by doctors to detect complications of brucellosis are:
  • Cerebrospinal fluid culture. The doctor will test a small sample of fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord to see if there is an infection.
  • Imaging test. Doctors will perform X-ray imaging, CT Scan, MRI to see changes in bones and joints, and to identify inflammation in the brain or other tissues.
  • Echocardiography, this test will use sound waves to create an image of the heart organ and check for signs of infection or damage to the heart.

Treatment of Brucellosis

The goal of brucellosis treatment is only to relieve symptoms, prevent recurrence of brucellosis, and avoid complications. The doctor will prescribe antibiotics for treatment duration of at least six weeks.
Usually the doctor will give two types of antibiotics for patients of this condition. The types of antibiotics commonly used to treat brucellosis are:
  • Tetracycline.
  • Streptomycin.
  • Doxycycline.
  • Rifampicin.
  • Gentamicin.

Complications and Prevention of Brucellosis

There are several complications that can be experienced by patients with brucellosis, namely:
  • Endocarditis ( infection of the inner lining of the heart wall), capable of damaging the heart valve and causing death.
  • Arthritis. Joint infection characterized by pain, stiffness, and swelling of the joints.
  • Testicular inflammation and inflammation, which causes pain and swelling.
  • Central nervous system infection, including meningitis, encephalitis.
  • Swelling of the liver.
  • Miscarriage and fetal defects in pregnant women.
While some preventive measures to reduce the risk of brucellosis, are:
  • Avoid eating foods made from non-pasteurized milk products.
  • Cook the meat thoroughly.
  • Use gloves and cover any open wound with bandages when interacting with animals.
  • Vaccinate animals to be free from brucellosis infection.

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