Friday, April 21, 2017

CHICKEN POX or Varicella simplex : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

Understanding Chicken Pox

Chickenpox disease, medically called varicella, is commonly afflicted by children under 10 years old. This disease can also affect adults and generally symptoms that appear more severe than children. Almost all adults who have had chicken pox will not catch it again.
The disease caused by varicella zoster virus is commonly characterized by the appearance of rash on the skin as its main symptom. The rash will turn into an itchy red fluid that will then dry, become sore, and peel off within 7 to 14 days. Body parts commonly covered with chicken pox is the face, behind the ears, scalp, chest, abdomen, arms, and legs.

Method of Chicken Pox Treatment

Chicken pox has no special handling steps. The goal of treatment is to reduce symptoms.
Drugs used to treat chicken pox are usually two types. First is paracetamol to lower feverThe second is a lotion or calamine powder to relieve itching of the skin.

Risk of Chicken Pox Complications

Not all children who contract chickenpox can heal by themselves without medical treatment. Unusual symptoms that you should be aware of include infections that occur in nodules on the skin, or if the child has vomiting, stiff neck, seizures, and become difficult to walk, talk, and maintain a balance of his body. Call your doctor immediately if the condition of your child's chicken pox is getting serious.
Meanwhile, the condition of adult chickenpox sufferers tends to be more severe and at risk of complications. Antidote (antiviral) drugs may be effective for treating people with chicken pox if given in the first 24 hours when first appearing with water droplets.
Chicken pox in pregnant women, newborns, and people with weakened immune systems are also more prone to serious complications. They should seek medical help as soon as possible if exposed to the virus or experience symptoms.

Step Chicken Pox Prevention

Chicken pox can be prevented by the vaccination process. This is the most effective way to prevent chicken pox and its complications. In Indonesia alone, chicken pox is not included in the mandatory immunization list for children, but it is still recommended.
The transmission of chickenpox is generally very easy and quick to happen. Prevention measures against chickenpox to the first spread that can be done is to isolate people with chickenpox from public places, such as school or office. Especially 1-2 days before the appearance of a rash up to 1 week ahead after the onset of the rash (when the nodules have dried and become a scab).

Symptoms Of Chicken Pox

The most common symptom of chickenpox most easily detected is a red rash that can spread throughout the body. There are a number of other symptoms that may be experienced by the person before the appearance of the rash. The symptoms may include:
  • Fever .
  • Sense of nausea and body feels not fresh.
  • No appetite.
  • Headaches .
  • Fatigue.
  • Pain or pain in muscles.
These symptoms can be experienced by adult patients with a higher severity compared with children sufferers.
After that, it will appear that itchy rash. However, not all people with chickenpox experience the same rash symptoms. Some only experience it in certain parts of the body (such as scalp, face, behind ear, chest, back, abdomen, or legs) and there is a whole body, even up in the mouth and ears, and around the buttocks. This rash will usually go through three stages of change, namely:
  • The rash becomes small bumps that itch.
  • The bumps then turn into nodules that are very itchy.
  • After 1-2 days, the nodules will dry up and become the scabs that will peel themselves.
Not all nodules will pass through all three stages simultaneously. Generally, there are pimples that are still wet, while others have dried up.
Keep in mind that there are some people who have more severe chickenpox. Immediately contact your doctor if there are unusual symptoms such as chest pain, difficulty breathing, the skin around the nodule becomes red and felt sore due to infection, as well as dehydration symptoms of dry mouth and rarely urinate.

Causes Of Chicken Pox

Chicken pox caused by this varicella zoster virus can be transmitted very easily and quickly. Transmission can be through direct contact with the person or through a splash of fluid during a person sneezing or coughing. You are even considered to have been exposed to chickenpox virus if you have been in direct contact or had one room with a sufferer for 15 minutes.
The moments to avoid are 1-2 days before the rash appears until the nodules dry and become sore (about a week after the appearance of the rash).
There are several factors that may increase your risk for contracting the disease. These risk factors include:
  • Never had chickenpox.
  • Have not received chickenpox vaccine, especially pregnant women.
  • Have a weakened immune system, for example, because of HIV, using steroid drugs, or undergoing chemotherapy.
  • Work in public places such as schools or hospitals.
  • House with children.
  • Babies, especially newborns, who have mothers who have not received chickenpox vaccine.
People with chicken pox usually do not need to undergo tests or medical examinations for the diagnosis. You are most likely to have chicken pox if you have major symptoms, such as a mild fever followed by a rash appearance. Red puncture due to chicken pox also has a significant texture, making it easily recognizable.
Pregnant or lactating women, people with weakened immune systems, and babies under the age of one month should be examined by a doctor if they experience any symptoms of chicken pox. Diagnosis and treatment as early as possible are needed to avoid the risk of complications.
Doctors can also perform simple blood tests to confirm your symptoms and see if you have immunity against chickenpox or not. The presence of chickenpox virus antibodies in the body indicates that you are already protected from the disease. But if you do not have it, your doctor will monitor the progress of the condition.

Treatment Of Chicken Pox

Chicken pox has no special treatment step and will usually heal by itself. The goal of treatment is to reduce the symptoms that can be done with a few simple steps such as:
  • Drink a lot and avoid foods that can make your mouth hurt, especially salty foods. Prevention of dehydration is important for people with chicken pox, especially children. Ice can also be given to relieve pain or itching due to chicken pox in the mouth.
  • Do not scratch the chicken pox because it can increase the risk of infection and leave scars. Wrapping your hands with gloves or socks while sleeping can also prevent scratching, especially in children. You can also apply lotion, calamine powder, or chlorphenamine (suitable for children aged one year or more).
  • Wear soft, cotton-like clothing, and loose for more severe skin irritation due to chicken pox can be prevented.
  • Use painkillers or analgesics if necessary. Analgesics such as paracetamol can be consumed by people with pain and fever. However, it is advisable to contact your doctor first if your child is under three months of chicken pox.
Do not give aspirin to a child who is suffering from chickenpox because it can cause Reye's syndrome. This disease causes serious damage to the brain and liver.
However, not all people with chicken pox can heal without medical treatment. People who are susceptible to complications from this disease require more intensive treatment, ie pregnant women, newborns, and people with reduced immune systems, such as those with cancer or diabetes.
One of the treatment steps is the antiviral drug acyclovir. This drug can relieve symptoms of chicken pox if given within 24 hours after the rash appears. Acyclovir serves to relieve the symptoms of chickenpox and not cure it.
In addition to antiviral drugs, doctors may also recommend immunoglobulin therapy. In this therapy, varicella-zoster immunoglobulin (VZIG) containing antibodies to the chickenpox virus will be administered by infusion.
Just like acyclovir, the immunoglobulin is not aimed at treating chicken pox. This therapy is a protective measure for people at high risk of severe chickenpox infections.

Complications Of Chicken Pox

Chicken pox includes a mild disease that rarely causes complications, especially in normally healthy children. In contrast to children, adults with chicken pox generally experience more severe symptoms and require treatment at the hospital.
There are a number of complications in chicken pox that may occur, especially in those at high risk. Some of these complications include:
  • Bacterial infections that attack the nodule with an indication of skin around the nodules are red and sore.
  • Pneumonia, especially in people with chicken pox who smoked.
  • Dehydration.
  • Inflammation of the brain or encephalitis.
  • Meningitis.
Pregnant women who are exposed to chicken pox are also more at risk of complications. If chickenpox in the first 7 months of pregnancy, the baby in the womb is at risk of congenital varicella syndrome. This syndrome can cause serious complications in infants, such as cataracts, skin injuries, or damage to the brain, and short arms or legs.
The transmission of chickenpox to the baby can also occur when the mother is infected one week before or after childbirth. If this happens, newborns will be at risk for more severe chickenpox.

Risk of Chicken Pox ( Shingles )

Varicella zoster virus can settle in nerve cells of the body even after the symptoms of chickenpox heal. Later, the virus has the possibility to reappear and cause smallpox, especially in adults and people with decreased immune systems.

Prevention Of Chicken Pox

Prevention of chicken pox can also be done through vaccination. Provision of common chicken pox vaccine is recommended to protect people at high risk of serious chicken pox or at risk of passing it on to many people. For example, a medical worker or a child who lives in a house with a parent with a weakened immune system.
Especially for women planning to have children, postpone your pregnancy for at least three months after receiving chickenpox vaccine. Vaccines are also not recommended for people with reduced immune systems, such as those with cancer.
In Indonesia alone, chicken pox is not included in the mandatory immunization list for children, but it is still recommended. This vaccine can only be given to children aged one year or older.
The transmission of chicken pox is also very easy to occur and can spread quickly. The first possible precautionary measure is to isolate chickenpox sufferers from public places such as schools or offices before all nodules break, dry, and then become a scab. This period usually lasts for one week after the appearance of the rash.
If you live with people with chickenpox, transmission can be prevented by:
  • Washing hands often, especially after contact with people.
  • Wearing a mask.
  • Using germicidal fluids to wipe objects or surfaces that may be exposed to the virus.
  • Washing clothes or bed linens regularly and separately.

Chicken Pox Images

One of the main symptoms of chickenpox is the most easily detected is a red rash that usually spreads throughout the body. There are some people who experience it on certain parts of the body, such as scalp, face, chest, back, abdomen, or legs. Others experience it all over the body, even in the mouth and ears.
In the early stages, rashes appear in the form of papules with a diameter of less than 1 cm in the skin of chicken pox. The papules then swell like blisters and filled with yellowish liquid. After 1-2 days, the nodules will dry and form a scab that will peel itself.
Waterpox smallpox generally has no developmental stage simultaneously. Therefore, there is likely to be a group of new papules that will form blister sores, while other nodules have started to dry out.
The chicken pox spots on people who have already received chicken pox vaccine can generally be lighter than those who have not received the vaccine.

Alodokter-smallpox -03
A pickled chicken pox on adolescent girls who never received chickenpox vaccine.

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