Sunday, April 23, 2017

CHIKUNGUNYA : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

Understanding Chikungunya

Chikungunya is a viral disease that attacks humans through the bite of  Aedes aegypti  or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes.  This mosquito acts as an intermediary or vector of organisms that carry chikungunya virus in their body without getting infected. Both are the same type of mosquito that causes  dengue fever.
CHIKUNGUNYA : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

Similar causes and symptoms cause chikungunya disease often to be misdiagnosed as dengue fever.
Mosquito Aedes aegypti much alive and found in tropical and subtropical regions, while Aedes (Ae.) Albopictus live in the area and the temperature was cooler. Both types of mosquitoes are commonly found mainly in the morning and evening.
Chikungunya case itself has been identified in about 60 countries located in Asia, Africa, Europe, and America.
Chikungunya people in Indonesia
From the health profile of Indonesia in 2014, there are reported Chikungunya Extra Events (KLB) in 8 districts / cities from 4 provinces in Indonesia. Based on the report of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia in the same year, there were about 7300 cases of chikungunya without any deaths.
Chikungunya fever is still a frequent epidemic problem in the tropics and subtropics, including in Indonesia. The low immunity status of the population against the virus and the high number of mosquitoes as the vector of chikungunya virus are the supporting factors for the epidemic of this disease. Allegedly increasing the puddle as a breeding ground for mosquitoes when the rainy season also contributed.
Causes of Chikungunya: Mosquito Bites 
Chikungunya virus can not spread directly from one person to another. The disease is caused by a virus that spreads through the bite of Ae mosquito  Aegypti  or Ae Albopictus , two types of mosquitoes that can also cause dengue virus The chikungunya virus belongs to the alfavirus genes of the Togaviridae family found in tropical countries.
Generally these mosquitoes attack during the day, but the bite especially occurs in the early hours and the afternoon. You are more vulnerable when attacked outside the home, although it does not rule out that Ae mosquito  aegypti  can also attack in the room.
Mosquitos Ae. aegypti more live and breed in a place close to humans, especially indoors. Places that are generally inhabited by mosquitoes are water reservoirs, bathtubs, to vases and flower pots filled with water. Mosquitos Ae. Albopictus has more and more breeding ground than Ae. Aegypti . In addition to puddles in the former tires of vehicles, ponds, or potted plants, these mosquitoes can also breed in puddles that exist in tree holes, bamboo, and coconut shells.
Chikungunya symptoms
After being bitten by a mosquito carrying the virus, the symptoms will start to feel at 4-8 days, but can also start from 2-12 days after bite. The symptoms initially resemble  flu symptoms .

  • Fever  - starts suddenly; One of the main symptoms of chikungunya
  • Joint pain  - its severity can inhibit the patient's body movements; These symptoms can last for weeks and are also a major symptom of chikungunya. These symptoms generally appear shortly after the symptoms of fever begin to be felt.
  • Muscle ache
  • Cold
  • Headache  intolerable
  • Rash  or red spots all over the body
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea  and vomiting
In some cases, the symptoms of joint pain will remain felt for several months, even years. Symptoms Chikungunya usually mild so undetected or too felt by the sufferer. In areas with dengue fever cases, there are also a few cases of misdiagnosis between these two diseases.
In some rare cases, chikungunya complications, such as nervous, eye, heart, and gastrointestinal disorders may occur. Especially in the elderly, this disease can lead to death.
Tests for Diagnosing Chikungunya
A blood sample belonging to a person should be taken in the first week after symptoms begin to develop. The sample was then tested with serologic and virologic (RT-PCR) tests in the laboratory. ELISA ( enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays ) testing will confirm the presence of antibodies that indicate chikungunya infection.
In the third to fifth week after the symptoms begin to show, IgM type antibodies will be at the highest level and will remain the same for the next two months.
How to Handle Chikungunya
There is no special treatment to cure chikungunya. Pain relief medicines and anti-inflammatory drugs aim only to relieve symptoms. Among fever-lowering and analgesic to relieve muscle pain and other pain. In some patients who lack fluid, for example due to loss of appetite and lazy to drink, oral fluid or infusion can be done to prevent  dehydration .
Consult your doctor before using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs are given if it is confirmed that the patient does not suffer from dengue fever. This is because the side effects of bleeding in patients with dengue fever.
Prevent Mosquito Bites Causes Chikungunya
There is no vaccine that can prevent a person infected chikungunya. Chikungunya prevention is done by focusing on avoiding mosquito bites and eradicating the habitat where mosquitoes breed. The Government of Indonesia has promoted the '3M-Plus' program. The 3 M's are:
  • Drain and brush the water reservoir, such as bathtub, toilet, and others
  • Closely sealed the water reservoir.
  • Utilize or recycle used goods that can accommodate rainwater such as used tires, coconut shell, and others.
While the 'plus' / additional actions that can be done to eradicate mosquito breeds are:
  • Place unused containers in the facedown position.
  • Keep the larvae fish in the pond.
  • Sprinkle a larvicidal powder (larvae or mosquito larvae) into an inadequately drained water container or in a difficult area of water.
  • Clean vases, aquariums and pets regularly at least once a week.
  • Make sure the  septic tank  remains closed and does not leak.
  • Make sure your roof gutters do not hold puddles.
  • Install the antenna gauze on the window.
  • Avoid hanging clothes in the open.
Here are the things that are suggested to avoid the bite of  Aedes aegypti  or  Aedes albopictus mosquitoes.
  • Use covered clothing or antique lotions if you are in an area with the potential for mosquitoes, such as in the garden.
  • Should wear clothes with bright colors. Mosquitoes are more reluctant to stick to this color.
  • Use a sprayer or an electric antinyamuk in the afternoon, even use a mosquito net if necessary. But avoid spray medication if there are babies, sick people or elderly people.
  • Minimize odor, like perfume or  hairspray . These odors can attract mosquitoes to perch.
  • Smoking / fogging  to kill mosquitoes is generally done especially when chikungunya or dengue is already plague in an area. Make sure that the fumigation done at your home or workplace is done with the proper procedure in accordance with the life cycle of mosquitoes.

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