Tuesday, April 25, 2017

DEHYDRATION: understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

Understanding Dehydration

Dehydration is a condition when the body loses more fluid than it gets, so the balance of the body's salts is disrupted and the body can not perform its normal function.
The content of water in a healthy human body is more than 60 percent of total body weight. The content of water at the ideal level in the body serves to help the digestive system work, removing dirt and toxins from the body, as lubricants and pads for joints, moisturizing the tissues of the ear, throat, and also the nose, Cells and keep skin healthy.

Symptoms of Dehydration

Some early signs of dehydration symptoms are you feeling thirsty and dizzy , dry mouth, tired, rarely urinate darker-colored urine and stronger smell, and dry skin.
DEHYDRATION: understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

If dehydration occurs in infants, early symptoms that can be noticed is the baby's crown will shrink, the number of tears slightly when crying, diapers remain dry after a few hours, less active, fussy, and easily drowsy.
In a state of dehydration, the body will be greatly affected even if we lose a little water. Unfortunately, there is no reliable gauge if the body needs water, especially in infants and young children. A pretty good clue is of urine color. Clear urine color means your body has enough fluid, while urine is yellow or dark yellow will be the first sign of dehydration.
Everyone can become dehydrated if they lose too much fluid in their body, but there are some people at greater risk.
  • Baby and children.
  • Elderly people.
  • People with chronic diseases (long-term illness), such as diabetes  and kidney failure.
  • Athletes with high-intensity training.
  • People living in the highlands.
  • People who exercise in hot, humid places.

Causes of Dehydration

The main cause of dehydration is diarrhea, especially if it occurs in infants and children. But dehydration can also be attributed to climatic conditions, physical activity or exercise, and your diet. Dehydration occurs when the body lacks enough fluid to replace the lost fluid. In addition to diarrhea, dehydration can also be caused by vomiting, excessive sweating during fever, and exercise during hot weather.

Actions To Treat Dehydration

Dehydration is not only a condition of lack of body fluids but also can mean a lack of mineral body. Dehydration treatment in infants and young children can not only be given water to replace lost fluids because water can dissolve the already low minerals in their bodies, which can actually make the dehydration condition worse. Instead, they can be given watermelon juice or other fruit juice, or oral ( oral rehydration solution ) that can be purchased at pharmacies without a prescription from a doctor. But juice should be avoided if the dehydration is caused by diarrhea due to consumption of contaminated food.
If you feel dehydrated, drink plenty of fluids. You can drink water or diluted fruit juice. Try to avoid drinks containing caffeine and soft drinks. If you or your child is dehydrated because of diarrhea, fruit juices and milk should be avoided. If untreated, severe dehydration can cause seizures , brain damage, and even death.

Time to Seek Help

You may need to perform a blood test and urine test to check the salt or salt or potassium balance in the body if your doctor suspects you are dehydrated. Immediately contact your hospital or doctor if you experience the following symptoms of dehydration:
  • Feeling tired or confused
  • Dizziness that does not go away after a few seconds changes the position from sitting to standing
  • Rapid but weak heartbeat
  • Breathing fast
  • Awareness is declining
  • Do not urinate for 8 hours
  • Convulsions
Severe dehydration should be treated promptly in the hospital with the help of fluids from the IV. Especially when the symptoms continue even though you've been trying to drink more.
If you suspect your baby or child is dehydrated, see your doctor immediately. And immediately go to the hospital if your baby has diarrhea six or more times during the last day, or when they vomit more than three times a day.
To prevent dehydration, drink plenty of fluids and eat foods with high water content.

Symptoms Of Dehydration

The two early signs of dehydration are a dark yellow thirst and urine. This is the body's way of trying to increase fluid in the body and reduce the discharge of fluids. Depending on how much your body loses fluid, dehydration is divided into three kinds. That is light, medium, and heavy.

Light and Medium Dehydration

Mild and moderate dehydration will generally lead to:
  • Thirst
  • The color of urine becomes more dark or dark
  • The number and frequency of urine removal decreases
  • The mouth is dry and sticky
  • Easy to get sleepy and get tired quickly
  • Headache
  • Constipation
  • Dizzy
You can cure the dehydration process at this stage without medical help by drinking more fluids. If dehydration is allowed to continue for a prolonged period, it can affect kidney function and increase the risk of kidney stones. Ultimately, it can also cause muscle damage.
While in children and infants, the symptoms of dehydration are as follows:
  • When we cry there are no tears
  • The eyes look sunken inward
  • Shrinking the top of the head
  • The diapers stay dry for 12 hours
  • The skin feels cold and dry
  • Easy to get angry and lethargic
  • The mouth is dry and sticky
  • Fatigue and dizziness

Dehydration Weight

Dehydration can be dangerous if left alone and not treated promptly. Severe dehydration is considered an emergency medical condition and requires rapid treatment. Symptoms that may occur when experiencing severe dehydration are:
  • Easily irritable and confused
  • Little tears and dry mouth
  • Rapid but weak heartbeat
  • Breathing quickly
  • The eyes look sunken
  • Fever
  • The skin becomes inelastic, after being pinched back to the origin for longer
  • Low blood pressure
  • Do not urinate for 8 hours or in infants, diapers rarely become wet due to urine.
  • Very dizzy or sleepy, especially in infants and children
  • Convulsions
  • Low awareness level
  • In children and infants, the feet and hands will be cold and blotchy-looking without itching or pain.
Dehydration at this level requires hospitalization. You will be given an IV to return the amount of fluid lost. If not treated seriously, it can cause complications. Among another brain swelling ( cerebral edema ), seizures, body temperature disorders of the body increased to a stroke ( heat injury and heatstroke ), hypovolemic shock, kidney failure, coma, and death.
In addition to the three types of dehydration that are differentiated based on their severity, the following types of dehydration are based on the cause, namely:
  • Hypertonic dehydration. When the body loses a lot of water so that the body's sodium levels increase. This type of dehydration is usually caused by lack of drinking, burns, diabetes, or having watery or watery diarrhea and vomiting. In general, infants and children are more likely to have hypertonic dehydration than adults.
  • Hypotonic dehydration (hyponatremia). A dehydration condition in which the sodium content in the blood vessels is reduced more than the moisture content.
  • Isotonic dehydration. In this type of dehydration, water and body sodium are reduced to the same degree. Isotonic dehydration is often caused by ordinary diarrhea.

Causes Of Dehydration

Dehydration is caused by a lack of fluid intake in the body, or we lose more fluid. The fluid present in the body can be wasted through urine, vomiting, diarrhea, sweat, and tears.
Climate, sports activities, and food will greatly affect the severity of dehydration.
Dehydration does not just happen by itself. Below will explain some of the main causes of dehydration.

Excessive sweating

Fever, exercise, exercise, heavy loads or rough workers who work in hot spots can get dehydrated because of the amount of sweat expelled. It is important that you drink water regularly to replace wasted fluids. Children and adolescents are at higher risk of dehydration because they do not understand the symptoms.

Have diabetes

Diabetics are at risk of dehydration when their blood glucose levels rise and are not controlled. As a result of high levels of sugar, the body will produce a lot of urine in order to get rid of glucose. Because of too frequent urination, then the body at risk of dehydration.

Suffering from certain diseases

Here are some medical conditions that can cause dehydration, such as gastroenteritis, alcoholism, anorexia nervosa, cystic fibrosis, burns, and heat stroke.

Diarrhea or vomiting is quite severe

Both of these conditions can be caused by various diseases and can cause the loss of body fluids in sufficient quantities and in a short time. Children and infants are the group of people most at risk of dehydration due to these two things.
Dehydration is a condition when the body loses more fluid than it gets, so the body does not have enough fluid to perform its normal function. The group of people most at risk of dehydration are:
  • Infants and children are more susceptible to dehydration because their small bodies make their bodies more sensitive to changes in moisture and mineral content. This group also often has  diarrhea .
  • Parents , being less concerned that they are dehydrated and must continue to drink water. Moreover, parents who have problems with memory.
  • Patients with chronic diseases (long term). Having uncontrolled  diabetes  makes the risk of dehydration increasing. Other diseases that cause dehydration are  kidney failure  and  heart disease .
  • tlet , will lose a lot of body fluid that comes out through his sweat. All that exercise can be dehydrated. The longer the exercise, the harder it is to stay hydrated. Especially runners, cycling athletes, and soccer players.
  • People who exercise in hot, humid places. When the air is hot and humid, the risks of dehydration and pain increase. When the air is moist, sweat can evaporate and cool you like normal, this will increase your body temperature and we need more fluids.
  • People who live, work, and exercise on the mainland have the potential to get some health problems. One of them is dehydration. Dehydration occurs when the body tries to adapt to the altitude by way of more urination and rapid breathing.

Excessive drinking

Alcohol is diuretic, meaning this drink makes you urinate more often. Dehydration can occur if you consume too much alcohol. One of the symptoms in this case is  a headache  and pengar. Try to drink plenty of water after consuming liquor to restore lost body fluids.

Dehydration Treatment

The only treatment for dehydration is to replace lost fluids and minerals by drinking plenty of water or diluted fruit juices. Sweet drinks can help replace lost sugars, while salty snacks can replace lost salts or sodium. The best approach to treating dehydration depends on the age and severity of dehydration, as well as the cause.


Oralite is one of the drugs used to treat dehydration. When you are dehydrated, your body will lose sugar, salt, and fluids. Drinking oralit can restore the balance of sugar, salt, and fluids in the body. There are many rehydration products that can be purchased freely. Consult your doctor or pharmacist to find out more about ORS.

Treating dehydration in infants

Your doctor can give you the right treatment advice if your baby is dehydrated. Immediately consult a doctor if you start worrying your baby is dehydrated.
Continue breastfeeding babies when they have  diarrhea , vomiting, or  fever . If you give infant formula, substitute it with a lactose-free formula until the diarrhea is completely stopped. Lactose is difficult to digest if the baby has diarrhea, and even worsen the condition of the diarrhea. Regularly administering ORS is accompanied by their diet (milk, formula mixed with water) will replace lost fluids, salts, and sugars.

Treating dehydration in children

For dehydration treatment in children, excessive watering can actually make the mineral content in the body more decreases and consequently worsen the condition of his body. Thus, it is recommended to give oral solution in children.
You can use a spoon to feed fluids to children who often experience vomiting and diarrhea.

Treating dehydration in athletes

For dehydration due to exercise, energy drinks containing electrolytes and carbohydrates or sugars are the best choice. Avoid all kinds of soft drinks.
Athletes are also at risk of hypotonic dehydration (hyponatremia) if drinking too much mineral water in a short time. Hypotonic dehydration (hyponatremia) can affect athletes because of the amount of sodium in the blood that comes out through sweat, and gets thinner when large amounts of mineral water enter the body.
Some of the symptoms of a person affected by hyponatremia are nausea, vomiting and headaches. If conditions get worse, then a person may experience brain swelling that causes confusion, convulsions, coma, even death.

Treat severe dehydration

Children and adults who are severely dehydrated should be treated promptly by hospital staff, and it is likely that this condition will require hospitalization. Patients can receive sugar, salt, and fluids through an IV. Infusion is a quick and effective way to restore the body's liquid and mineral levels to a normal level.

Prevention Of Dehydration

To prevent dehydration, drink plenty of fluids and eat foods high in water, such as fruits and vegetables. Liquids can be obtained not only from water, but also from food, low-fat milk, and fruit juices. If you exercise, do not wait until you feel thirsty to drink. By drinking regularly, the normal levels of liquids and minerals in the body can be maintained. If you are active in exercise, you should drink water beyond normal levels.
The amount of sweat released by each person is different, therefore, it is quite difficult to determine an appropriate recommendation as to how much fluid should be drunk. But on average, for adults, you should drink two to three liters of water each day. As for children, it all depends on the age, body size, and activities performed. In conclusion, the more sweat is released, the higher water intake the body needs.
But if you drink lots of fluids to exceed that can be processed by the body, the effect can reduce the level of salt in the blood. This can lead to hypotonics. If you feel  bloated , stop drinking and wait until the body adjusts the levels again. Keep in mind that lack of salt or sodium in the body can be fatal.
Some examples of conditions requiring special attention concern the importance of fluid requirements:
If there is a child or someone closest to you being sick, especially having a  fever ,  diarrhea , or vomiting, most likely he will be dehydrated. It is important to replace body fluids as soon as possible.
For those of you who like to exercise, drink water before starting a strenuous exercise. At least you are advised to drink 300-700 milliliters of water. Making clear urine is a good sign if you have enough water to drink.
If you live in hot and humid areas, drink plenty of water to lower body heat. Avoid consuming alcohol while the temperature is hot, because the alcohol content will increase the amount of water lost.

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